In the early days of hip-hop, rappers used street teams to promote new albums, singles, and tours. Now, they have Instagram. As social media becomes more integrated into all of our daily lives, recording artists have also naturally incorporated it into the business of building and communicating with their fanbases. And, just as rapidly as social media itself innovated the way we debate, discuss, and interpret the world, artists have learned to leverage those online fanbases to useful real-world effect. Even now, rappers like Chance The Rapper and Nicki Minaj bank on viral “challenges” to drive streams of their latest singles, “Groceries” and “Megatron,” as City Girls, Lil Nas X, and Megan Thee Stallion have ridden them to impressive chart placements.
In the ’80s and ’90s, as rap music first exploded into mainstream popularity, rappers and their labels had to be cagey about their promotional budgets. Due to the perceived volatility of the emerging genre and radio’s wariness to new songs to programming, early hip-hop artists needed to build a groundswell of support. Unfortunately, major labels were also reticent to approve big spending on things like print ads, billboards, or other promotional tactics. Therefore, the least expensive way to generate buzz was to employ early supporters to participate in word-of-mouth campaigns to increase awareness of new songs and albums, which would theoretically lead to more requests at radio, eventually turning a new record into a hit. Those first supporters formed the foundation of street teams.
The Los Angeles Times detailed how such campaigns would work back in 1994, when the concept of street teams was still relatively new. Record labels and artist managers would offer free merchandise such as T-shirts, cassette singles, posters, hats, and the like in exchange for fans’ outreach efforts: Handing out flyers and hanging posters announcing the latest releases or upcoming shows. The street-level, guerilla nature of their efforts were focused in urban communities and hangouts, places that big ad companies and marketing firms often overlooked, but which contained the lucrative potential to build big buzz.
By using fans who already had a passion for the music, the word-of-mouth campaigns often had the air of peer-generated, natural interactions. No one felt like they were selling anything or being sold to, because the promoters were fans of the music themselves. By handing out cheaper merchandise, labels and artists were able to build the needed buzz without the big budget expenditure required to buy radio and print ads and seemingly got more value for their expense. Fans did the legwork, freeing the artist and their reps more of their own time from promotional efforts to actually working on the music.
Today, rappers have stumbled upon a new way to mobilize their fanbases to do the work of promoting a new record. In place of or in addition to servicing a record to radio, which can cost up to $50,000 — and risks running afoul of payola laws if certain guidelines are breached — rappers have discovered that “challenging” their fans to post videos dancing, rapping, or otherwise participating in a viral trend with the song prominently featured can have a boosting effect on the record’s reach and chart life.