A virus — carried by mosquitoes — has taken over Brazil and is tearing across the globe. While the World Health Organization issues alarms and travel advisories, scientists are scrambling to assess the situation without much data.
So, what is the Zika virus? How will it affect you? Is it as big of a deal as people are saying? So far, the answer to that last question is “yes.” The New York Times warns us to expect four million infections by year’s end. Troops have been deployed to fight mosquitoes in Brazil. The W.H.O. will soon hold an emergency meeting in hopes of containing the virus before it creates Ebola-level panic.
What You Should Know About The Zika Virus
The Zika virus was first discovered in 1947, but remained mostly unstudied until now. The earliest case occurred in a monkey, and the virus rarely affected humans until 2007 when it hit the Pacific Ocean’s Yap Islands and, later, French Polynesia. Experts now worry the virus will “spread explosively” throughout the Americas. At least 31 cases have been reported in the U.S. so far, and vector-borne disease expert Uriel Kitron calls the virus a “game-changer” for its ability to pass though a pregnant woman’s placenta. Some affected babies won’t live long, and those that do will require medical support for their entire lives.
The Zika virus is spread by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which differ from other types of mosquitoes by attacking humans during daytime hours. However, the disease may have spread to regular mosquitoes too (the dearth of information is certainly adding to the panic). As of now, experts believe up to 1.5 million people have been hit by the virus, which causes fever, inflammation and joint pain. To complicate matters, Zika often mirrors the dengue or chikungunya viruses. While 80% of infected adults will show only mild symptoms, the potential effects on pregnant women are devastating.
The infant below shows the telltale signs of microcephaly, which is evidenced by an abnormally small head and decreased brain development. The W.H.O. traced more than 4,000 reported Brazilian microcephaly cases in four months. To put that number in perspective, an estimated 150 cases of microcephaly were reported in 2014. Because researchers know little about the Zika virus, they are hedging their bets that other fetal effects may occur, too.
The neuro-pediatrician who recognized the Zika crisis, Dr. Vanessa Van Der Linden, captured these brain scans of a two-month-old infant to show the effects of microcephaly.
One U.S. expert says a Zika vaccine won’t arrive for years, so fumigation and breeding-ground crackdowns will likely be the best defense. The Zika cases that have slipped past U.S. borders mainly affect those who have recently traveled abroad. However, experts believe the mosquitoes might spread to our warmer, muggy climates — like those found in Hawaii, Florida, and Texas.